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As a Membrane Therapeutic PPC Improves Membrane Fluidity, Permeability, Regeneration and Repair
Phospholipids are essential components of all cellular and subcellular membranes, phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine predominating quantitatively. They constitute the typical bilayer configuration, the matrix of all biological membranes.
Phosphatidylcholine in particular clearly plays a vital role in human life.  More than 1,000 experimental and clinical investigations clearly demonstrate that Polyenylphosphatidylcholine (PPC) and its primary active ingredient 1,2 dilinoleoylphosphatidylcholine (DLPC) significantly improve membrane-dependent cellular and organ functions (i.e. enzyme activities). DLPC is quantitatively and qualitatively responsible for the superior therapeutic effects of purified phosphatidylcholine. Only purified PPC can deliver a bio-available and therapeutic dose of DLPC, a superior building block for life and total wellness.
Membrane Fluidity
Of significant importance for the function of biological membranes is their fluidity which is decisively influenced by the composition of its phospholipids. Clinical studies demonstrate the incorporation of PPC/DLPC into the cellular membranes has multiple positive effects on  membrane fluidity.
Functions of Phospholipids under Special Consideration of PPC/DLPC

  • high energy structural and functional elements of all biological
    membranes (e.g. of cells, blood corpuscles, lipoproteins, surfactants),
  • indispensable for cellular differentiation, proliferation and regeneration,
  • important for the transport of molecules through membranes,
  • control membrane-dependent metabolic processes between the intracellular and intercellular space,
  • maintain and promote the activity and activation of membrane-bound proteins such as of enzymes (e.g. Na+-K+-ATPase, lipoprotein lipase) and of receptors (e.g. of insulin),
  • contain polyunsaturated fatty acids to be used on body’s request as precursors of cytoprotective prostaglandins and of other eicosanoids,
  • contain choline to be used on request in certain neurological processes such as for the synthesis of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine,
  • a source of second messengers in cell signalling (e.g. of diacylglycerol)
  • they contain phosphate e.g. for ATP formation,
  • participate in fat emulsification in the GI-tract and in the bile,
  • codetermine erythrocyte and platelet aggregation, and
  • influence immunological reactions on the cellular level.

These multiple tasks of phospholipids are always related to the morphology of biological membranes; each point in this list of the multiple tasks of phospholipids and PPC in particular, which is not exhaustive, is based on the incorporation into biological membranes and thus on the intact character of the structures.
PPC as a Membrane Therapeutic
With its special ingredient DLPC, PPC is of theoretical importance in all those diseases in which damaged membrane structure, reduced phospholipid levels, and/or decreased membrane fluidity is present. This hypothesis is supported by experimental and clinical investigations of various membrane-associated disorders and illnesses.
Active Principle and Potential Indications
Studies on the active principle as well as pharmacological and clinical trials are done on the following disturbances and diseases related to membrane damages.
In liver diseases, the hepatocyte structures are damaged by viruses, organic solvents, alcohol, medicaments, drugs and fatty food, among others. As a consequence, membrane fluidity and permeability is disturbed, and membrane metabolic processes as well as membrane-associated enzyme and receptor activities are impaired. This considerably inhibits liver functioning.
In dyslipidemia with or without atherosclerosis, various pathomechanisms such as lipid peroxidation, decrease of lipid-metabolising enzyme activity, and modification of lipoprotein structure and function, interact and provoke a rise in serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels. Subsequent accumulation of fat in the peripheral tissue may occur, avoiding the receptor-mediated cholesterol uptake. As it is relatively lowered, serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL) takes up and transports less cholesterol from the periphery back to the liver.
One of the hemorheological disturbances is an elevated cholesterol/phospholipid ratio in the membranes of platelets and red blood cells (RBC) with concomitant changes in membrane function. This leads to an increased tendency of platelets and RBC to aggregate which in turn influences blood flow properties and microcirculation.
In neurological diseases the reduction of choline, the deficiency in unsaturated fatty acids, or the increased rigidity of neuronal membranes may influence metabolic processes and nerve functioning.
To the diabetes associated sequelae belong disturbances such as fatty liver and dyslipidemia, atherosclerosis and myocardial infarction. According to first interesting data, PPC may be a useful tool to inhibit these deadly consequences of diabetes mellitus.
In gastrointestinal inflammation the mucosal quality, membranes structures, membrane-dependent immunological reactions, and local prostaglandin synthesis are altered, and collagen synthesis potentially increased.
In lung diseases such as infant or adult respiratory distress syndrome, the fatal outcome of the disease is triggered by a phospholipid deficiency in the pulmonary alveoli (surfactant).
In kidney diseases, phospholipid deficiency in the membranes is present, involving impaired excretion and reduced prostaglandin synthesis.
In chronic ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) and in peritonitis the sharp fall of surface-active phospholipid material is striking. Disorders in the peritoneum and reduction in ultrafiltration are the consequences.
In the multifactorial picture of gestosis, disorders of the lipid metabolism and lipid peroxidation, as well as impaired liver and kidney function, can be observed.
In skin diseases such as psoriasis, the pathological mechanisms seem to be favoured, among others, by alterations of cell structures and of fatty acid and phospholipid composition.
In ageing patients we are often faced with a combination of age-linked physiologic changes and diseases such as degenerative liver damage or atherosclerotic changes of the vascular wall associated with other degenerative or non-degenerative diseases.
All of these diseases have comparable membrane disorders in common.  Such disorders may be positively influenced, eliminated, or even improved beyond normal by the administration of PPC, and more specifically the high concentration 1,2 DLPC.  The administration of PPC can best be described as a membrane therapeutic.
Dr. rer nat, Dr. med habil, K.-J.Gundermann – Department of Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, Pomeranian Medical Academy, Szczecin/Poland

Gundermann K.-J:  The Essential Phospholipids As a Membrane Therapeutic; Polish Section of European Society of Biochemical Pharmacology; (1993) 121-222

*These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.